EFFECT OF CLIMATIC CHANGE ON AGRICULTURE- A BRIEF FOCUS BY NABARUP GANGULY AS AN AUTHOR-DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY WORLDWIDE

ImageClimate reflects the most important factor of agricultural productivity. The changes in the climate is highly caused by the above release of‘greenhouse’ gases into the atmosphere. The extent of negative effects of changes influence agricultural production adversely due to resulting changes in agriculture, reduction in the quantity of water available for irrigation Loss of land through rise in the sea level. There is a opposite relationship between Agriculture and Climate change which  are interlocked processes, in that each exerts effects on the other in a complex fashion. Climate changes, especially shifts in precipitation and temperature, are widely significant effects on agriculture, because these two factors determine the carrying capacity of any ecosystem. At the same time, modern agriculture is a major contributing factor to global warming, as altered land cover and the emission of CO2, methane gas, and nitrous oxide from intensive farming increase the GHG content of the atmosphere. However, it remains possible to transform industrialized agriculture, using techniques that could render it more sustainable and mitigate its effects upon global and local climates. Climate change may increase the amount of arable land in high-latitude region by reduction of the amount of frozen lands. A 2005 study reports that temperature in Siberia has increased three degree Celsius in average since 1960 (much more than the rest of the world).However, reports about the impact of global warming on Russian agricultureindicate conflicting probable effects : while they expect a northward extension of farmable lands, they also warn of possible productivity losses and increased risk of drought. Sea levels are expected to get up to one meter higher by 2100, though this projection is disputed. A rise in the sea level would result in an agricultural land loss, in particular in areas such as South East Asia. Erosion, submergence of shorelines, Salinity of the water table due to the increased sea levels, could mainly affect agriculture through inundation of low lying lands. Low lying areas such as Bangladesh, India and Vietnam will experience major loss of rice crop if sea levels rise as expected by the end of the century. Vietnam for example relies heavily on its southern tip, where the Mekong Delta lies, for rice planting. Any rise in sea level of no more than a meter will drown several km2 of rice paddies, rendering Vietnam incapable of producing its main staple and export of rice.

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