How genetic modification is done: 1. Agrobacterium

Science on the Land

Genetic modification (GM, genetic engineering) for eukaryotes matters because we humans are eukaryotes and we use eukaryotes. As you know, eukaryotes have nucleated cells.
Among the eukaryotes we eat angiosperms (flowering, fruiting plants), herbivores which eat them, and predators which eat herbivores. We use angiosperms for textiles and buildings. We fight eukaryote pests, some of which attack angiosperms.
The most efficient, therefore the most widely-used method for making GM angiosperms uses modified strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Since bacteria, including this one, are prokaryotes (having no cell nucleus) the Agrobacterium method involves prokaryote GM.
Agrobacterial GM has been used for dicots such as cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and soya (Glycine max). Dicots are dicotyledenous angiosperms, whose seeds’ starchy endosperm is in two halves.
Agrobacterial GM has been used also for monocots such as rice (Oryza sativa) and maize (corn, Zea mays). Monocots are monocotyledonous angiosperms…

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