Авторы и принадлежность:
Ravil A. Tulumbaev, Independent researcher, design engineer
The porous composite material of the fractal structure (bio polimineral composite material) formed from organic and inorganic substances and provides a spatial arrangement of the material and the various aspects of the practical use, and relates to the field of ecology home and industrial environment, preferred field of use of this group of inventions will be a construction, primarily finishing etc. works made in order to protect the living environment of people and quality of life.
The use of meta-analysis and conducted a systematic review of publications in various disciplines and areas of basic and applied sciences allowed to form and reinforce the understanding and purpose of experimental and research work.
Performed experimental and research work based on the principles of bionics / biomimetics, that is, the scientific direction which regards the study of the structure and functions of biological systems and objects as models for the creation of engineering solutions.
It is known that the microorganisms and living cells have their own energy and constantly use a large amount of protein and minerals to build (create) self-organizing way cellular materials micro and nano-meter size.
Thus, the examples from the world of nature are the basis for the creation of engineering solutions.
Based on what is currently known composite materials with the structures of micro and nano levels produced, both of synthetic and of biological materials (proteins, collagen, etc.), Natural minerals, produce membranes like membranes for reverse osmosis (i.e., delay and neutralize organic compounds) and that the proteins have a natural ability to form a regular structure in the form of crystalline lattices, and the ability of bacteria to absorb (leaching) metals, it becomes possible to offer bio polimineral composite material, which is a hierarchical structure from the pores.
Proposed bio polimineral material is a composite material made of proteins, microorganisms, and collection of the desired, compounds based on inorganic components (i.e., inorganic and / or organometallic compounds).
Construction bio polimineral structure of the composite material is carried out by self-assembly with the participation of microorganisms in a managed and controlled impact on the process.
Construction of composite structures by self-assembly is carried out with the participation of microorganisms in a managed and controlled impact on the process. The possibility of practical use of the composite material is based on the phenomenon of biomineralization, which will be a preparatory step to the main biochemical process technology, which forms a film coating structural pores (cells carrying the appointment of photo electrochemical cells) and for bonding them in the formation of the porous structure.
The term biomineralization (induced biomineralization), that is producing minerals under the influence of micro-organisms introduced in a scientific revolution in palaeontology. As an example of induced biomineralization may be brought mineralogical thiol bacteria side of life (oxidizing) and sulphate-reducing bacteria.
It is known that the microorganisms and living cells have their own energy and constantly use a large amount of protein and minerals to build (create) self-organizing way cellular materials micro and nano-meter size. Thus, the examples from the world of nature are the basis for the creation of engineering solutions.
The concept of fractals appeared a few decades ago. That’s when it became clear that the clouds, trees, lightning, stalactites and even a peacock’s tail can be structured by means of fractal geometry. Fractal structures is manifested in the universal sign for a variety of natural manifestations, fractals appear as at the macro level and at the level of elementary particles.
There are various classifications of fractals in their properties depending on the degree of self-similarity. In the present invention, formed by constructs can be attributed to the group of self-similar fractal.
Fractals of this type contain a different copy of the figure completely and more or less identical at different scales.
Formed structure similar to “Russian matryoshka” (one object is in another similar) and is formed in a multi-stage process, the result of which is structured like a multi-level building in nature fractal.
Leaking bio chemical and physical processes in a micro, nano and angstroms pores fractal layered structures require further analysis and studies of multifactorial influences to achieve efficient multilevel osmotic effect and foto-elektrolit reactions that depend on parameters such as range and power absorbed by the spectrum of the light source, the temperature, viscosity of the medium depending on the percentage of moisture content, pressure and used as the hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials such as for instance gypsum, sand and coal are used in conjunction with biomaterial bio composite technologically forming cells which form self-similar layered structure of clusters.
During the activity of microorganisms and interaction with artificial ambient environment (bioreactor) and followed by drying and dying off of the microorganisms is carried out of their self-assembly and crystallization to form complexes and ensembles. One of the options for getting the proposed composite material is its production from waste food and agriculture, as well as their use as a reactor for sowing acetic acid bacteria from the air, analogous to the acetic acid bacteria sowing seed of other species of microorganisms can be arranged.
As a result of “seeding” and the microorganisms in the bioreactor with metals or minerals synthesized chemical structure – bio complexes and molecular assemblies that are subsequently formed in the porous structure of the composite membrane micro nano-structured coating of the cells with the nano-particles and / or ultrafine fibers formed by self-organization “bottom to top”.
As the protein and inorganic constituent of protein and mineral-based composite material for the “seeding” of microorganisms used materials and products of animal and vegetable origin.
lactic acid bacteria can be used to produce a composite material.
By absorbing moisture from the air or under the influence of water in the composite material structure the electrochemical reactions occur (in the presence of sunlight and photochemical processes) in the pores, the cells formed an electric potential similar to the potential under the action of the galvanic battery or an electrolytic capacitor . Repeated measurements of the value produced at the “point” (at the tip of the voltmeter probes on the glass substrate) of the proposed composite in a wet state, showed values from 0.1 mA to 0.4 mA, and the order of 0.35 mV,
Said electric potential, in turn, affect the microorganism having a specific electrical charge and biological potential (cell is a restricted form of the cell).
As a result of ion exchange is performed and the effects on proteins starts a complex chain of molecular changes in the microorganism and salt formation, eventually disturbed metabolism, which leads to the death of bacteria on the surface of foreign material.
The process of metabolism and biochemical processes in the living cell micro-organisms, are violated, thereby providing a bactericidal effect of the composite material by electrochemical potential, which also plays an important role for batteries and fuel cells.
The proposed composite material can be used for climate control air purification and in residential areas, cleaning and adjustment process ensures the absorption and chemisorption methods of cleaning the surface of the moisture-absorbing material and is similar in physical and chemical attack with biochemical and photocatalytic purification methods.
The cascade of these processes begins to flow from the adsorption process (includes a gaseous component dissolved in a liquid solvent) by reacting the material surface with moist air moving environment under natural or artificial ventilation.
The result is the use of humidity, without prejudice to human, animals, plants, property.
For example, the proposed “breathable” porous material helps to regulate humidity in a natural way due to the consumption of moisture from the air and moisture, kickback purified water during the daily fluctuations of humidity and temperature changes, that has a practical application in countries with arid climate.
As a result of exposure to moisture to the porous structure of the composite material consisting of microspores – cells, separated on a cellular basis, with included therein nano sized pores, partial molecular dissolution bio polimineral film coating consisting of molecular assemblies and organometallic and bimetallic compounds, resulting in the pores formed by the electrolyte solution (bio composite material is dissolved to a predetermined and defined concentration) and electrode – nano particles and / or ultrafine fibers.
The water permeability of the porous composite material and is an important key feature for multi osmotic effect and electromagnetic potential structured cells and depends on the interaction between the micro and nano-pores (studies have shown that the material has a particle size distribution of 190 ± 30 nm
The presence of natural dyes, pigments impart pores photo properties electrolytic cell. Formed by photo electrochemical potential bio polimineral, including natural dyes (comparable to the natural process of bleaching natural material under the influence of the spectrum of natural and artificial light) also plays an important role for batteries and fuel cells, both available in all conditions of alternative supply for the micro / nano sensors and actuators.
Practical and useful purpose of innovative and promising material with a new principle of construction is in its passive and activated anti-bacterial effect of the surface, for example for interior finishing ; as well as to clean the air from organic and inorganic pollutants in the indoor environment of buildings (residential, public and industrial), in terms of natural and artificial ventilation and air conditioning; in rooms with normal and high humidity.
Also, it is obvious that the proposed new alternative source of supply can serve for various microelectronic devices (sensors, etc.) installed indoors and outdoors, as well as for the impact of external aggressive biological agents on the surface of the product by means of electromagnetic action and do not cause harm to humans.
The bactericidal effect is Electrical, physical and chemical effects on the microorganisms pores (cells of the clusters) of composite material and different effects on the activity of microorganisms current source and creates an unfavourable environment electrochemical micro nano angstrom pore structure of the material.
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